One of the urgent problems of modern pedagogy is the study of the motivational means of influencing the human psyche with the aim of forming certain skills and skills in the conditions of a modified picture of the world.
In our opinion, the operative implementation of pedagogical projects and the solution of methodological problems are possible within the framework of language courses where the structure of instruction is flexible and not limited to curricula, work programs, approved textbooks and selected contingent of pupils of certain age groups and intellectual abilities.
Such a contingent is conventionally referred to as people between the ages of 20 and 40 According to research at this stage of their development, the person activates abstract thinking, integrates the verbal and logical functions of the intellect, and increases the level of creative activity. At the first stage of early adulthood, a person has the ability to self-posing problems, and the second – to solve problems organizational way, in a team with other participants. In addition, the context of solving problems is expanding, and the interests of society as a whole are taken into account.
Along with the awareness of responsibility for their actions, a person has an increased understanding of the contradictions that are solved through the integration of the ideal and reality, and the structuring of the system of correlation between themselves and the surrounding world continues.
As we see, all modifications are related to the requirements of the psychological characteristics of students of language courses.
Thus, the purpose of this study is to prepare a theoretical platform for adapting the immersion method to the cognitive features of members of early adulthood.
The general principles of the immersion method intersect with certain provisions of the immersion method and the direct method of teaching foreign languages (M. Berlitz), namely: the impact on students through suggestion rather than logical conviction, reliance on intuition, imitation, mechanical repetition, verbal speech, material, the use of audio and video materials, careful selection of language material. In order to exclude the use of the native language, the methods of demonstrating objects (concrete vocabulary), mental associations (abstract vocabulary), and examples and visual aids (grammar) are used from the educational process.
At the first stage of early adulthood human attention is distinguished by selectivity, intensity, and mobility. In its development, attention at this stage is ahead of memory and thinking. Stability and concentration of attention in the representatives of early adulthood can provide methods that stimulate active mental activity. It is in this phase of development that a person’s attention is focused on aspects of professional or vital interest. Possessing a “crystallized” intellect, adult students prefer performing tasks that require the use of life experience and a general level of knowledge. Attention in early adulthood is maximally concentrated at the time of assignments requiring the exchange of vital observations.
Given this peculiarity, we propose to conduct classes at an advanced stage of language learning exclusively in the form of a colloquial club with little involvement of new lexical and idiomatic material and correction of some grammatical skills,
not sufficiently learned in the early stages. Thus, linguistic phenomena are not explained in isolation, but are presented purely in the context, inductively. Students formulate their ideas on the basis of the proposed lexical and idiomatic units applied to each topic of the club.
In the period of early adulthood, according to observations of psychologists, human memory is characterized by a certain stability. Against the background of a decline in eidetic memory, there is an increase in the level of verbal memory. It is the first phase of early adulthood that is favorable for the effective assimilation of information by verbal means. The concept of transformational exercises developed by us is based precisely on the multiphase execution of training exercises – independently, in pairs, front. At the same time, the student fulfills the role of both the learner and the instructor, which according to the “educational pyramid” raises the percentage of memorized information to 90%, and ensures the transfer of the fixed information to long-term memory.
The most reliable in the memory of a person is fixed information related to actions, emotional load, a circle of knowledge and interests. Based on this, the mnemotechnics immersion method will include a game episode of each lesson.
In order to strengthen the functions of involuntary memory, we have created, tested and implemented in the educational process a sightseeing club and a cookery club.
From various classifications we selected such types of games and communicative tasks: tic-tac-toe, domino, bingo, board games, e.g. Snakes and Ladder), jigsaw, guesser, collaborative crossword, interview, quiz, Venn diagram, description of pictures, viewing comic videos and their commentary, guessing the heard sounds, “taboo” (guessing the word), jeopardy, “match-up” (finding correspondences), verbal association, expert game.
Several classes at the level we are conducting as part of the students’ role as a guide-guide. We have developed special routes for historical places of the city with text support from the students themselves. The program of the walking tour includes a preliminary stage of memorizing the text by heart (the student is also provided with an audio file), its reproduction during the walk itself, and video recording of speeches.
So, the psychological approach in the immersion method is:
- Individualization of training (taking into account the temperament and character of an adult student);
- reliance on instinctive motivation, subconsciously dominant in early adulthood (prevention, endorphinization, socialization, informatization);
- selection and training of language material that is modern and idiomatic;
- cognitive features: the specifics of thinking, attention and memory in an adult (incorporation).